The traditions of the Mongolian statistical system date back centuries ago and historical sources and references indicate that our ancient ancestors Hunnus used to count their herds by marking the records using cut woods. Later in the 13th century, having established a mighty State, the Mongols used to count their population, based on which the Government imposed taxes. The 1921 people's revolution marked a new development era in Mongolia's accounting and statistics history, creating conducive environment and conditions for the development of economic surveys and counts, especially the development of scientific statistics.
A resolution for the establishment of "Data counting Division" at the Ministy of Internal Affairs
The first Mongolian Constitution adopted in 1924 laid the foundation of the modern statistics by legalizing "any state counting and surveying activities" and the resolution of the country's first Ikh Khural, the Parliament, provided for "commencing counting and surveying activities by establishing a unit for any counting and surveying as the process bears much importance". Thus, on November 11, 1924 the Data Counting Division was first formed under the Ministry of Internal Affairs, with a staff of six, setting the basis for development of statistics office in Mongolia.
In 1929, the Division was re-organized into an office under the Government of Mongolia with a staff of 12. The Division was charged with a responsibility to organize and manage all census and statistical activities, and focused its core attention to the development and processing of all statistical materials and references needed for the country's economic policies.
Instruction for the registration of property belong citizens, enterprises and артел
A plenary session of the Central Committee of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party was convened in December 1940 and discussed the country's economic development plan for 1941. Since then, the country's social and economic development began to base on annual planning, and the need arose to compile data and information necessary for the review of the plan and prepare the subsequent plans. Thus, in 1941 the Statistical Division under the Government was reorganized into the Department of Planning, Statistics and Auditing; and reorganized into the Statistical Division of the State Planning Commission in 1945. According to the Resolution #106 of the Presidium of the State Baga Khural of November 23, 1945, the State Planning Commission was established under the Council of Ministers of the MPR.
Under the decree of the Council of Ministers dated April 6, 1958, the Statistical Division of the Planning Commission was expanded and changed into the Statistics Office of the Planning Commission, comprising of three divisions and two units.
In compliance with the decree of the Presidium of the Great People's Khural dated April 8, 1960, the statistical organization was re-established to become the Central Statistics Office at the Council of Ministers, which made the statistical office an independent from any Ministry or Agency Government Office after some 36 years of its initial establishment in Mongolia. According to the Resolution 183 of the Council of Ministers of April 13, 1960, the Statistical Office was expanded to comprise of 10 divisions and units, 19 provincial bureaus, and 389 sub-provincial inspectors, thus creating an extensive and comprehensive statistical service in the country.
In 1962, a deputy in charge of planning and statistical matters was appointed at every sub-provincial administration, providing for local management of statistical matters.
As there arose a need for the use of the global term "statistics" in its internationally recognized meaning in Mongolia, the Council of Ministers adopted a decree setting forward "measures to improve ‘statistical' functions", which helped rename the central office and local bureaus to their current names which uses the word "statistics". The decree not only changed names but also expanded the rights of statistical bodies and sanctioned them additional responsibilities to draft law on statistics, undertake mechanization of statistical works, provide professional management to primary data inputs, issue publications, and launch surveys on household income.
Daily statistical functions had been regulated by decrees and orders of the Central Committee of the Party as well as of the Council of Ministers until the first law on statistics was enacted.
The 21st session of the Council of People's Ministers on May 31 of 1940 as well as the 31st session of the State Baga Khural on June 8 of the same year approved the Procedures for Planning, Statistics, and Auditing Activities. The procedures provided that the Department of Planning, Statistics and Inspection under the Council of Ministries would be in charge of handling the implementation and fulfillment of all plans regarding the national economic and cultural development.
The resolution of the Council of Ministers dated April 6, 1958 approved the Charter of the Department, which defined the Department as the state central economic and cultural data processing organization responsible for compiling and reporting to the Government progress and analysis reports for the implementation of annual as well as long term plans, status of the maintenance and use of the country's material resources, development features and ratios of the economic sectors.
In accordance with the Resolution of the Council of Ministers dated April 8, 1960, the Charter of the Department was revised to define general provisions, basic functions and responsibilities, rights and powers of the statistical office of the country. The Charter provided that the scientific nature of statistical services is enhanced and that statistical service pursues a consolidated integral management, methods and methodologies and principles. The Charter also provided for the Government's and Party's decisions and resolutions on the national economic planning and development be the guidelines for the statistical service.
In 1980, the Central Committee of MPRP and the Council of Ministers approved resolution #31 that aimed at strengthening the struggle against reporting false statistics and cheating the State. The resolution called for immediate termination of any acts of deliberate false reporting on the fulfillment of the country's economic plans and provided for severe punitive measures for such offences. An amendment was made into the Criminal Law, with provisions for the fight against false reporting of the fulfillment of national planning and other statistical data by the Decree of the Presidium of the People's Ikh Khural of the MPR of December 22, 1980.
In 1990, statistical organization of Mongolia was re-established as the State Statistical Office. This was the time when Mongolia had just shifted to democracy and market economy, with a nascent parliamentary government, allowing for multiple forms of property ownership. Mongolia faced new challenges to replace the then existing statistical data collection method based general observations with the method of specified surveys and other modern means as well as introducing internationally accepted practices and principles.